Cervical cancer ranks third in cancer incidence worldwide and is the most frequent gynecological cancer in developing countries. The frequency of cervical cancer after treatment for dysplasia is lower than 1% and mortality is less than 0.5%.
The increasing trend of the disease in developing countries is attributed to the early beginning of sexual activities, certain sexual behaviors like a high number of multiple partners, early age at first intercourse, infrequent use of condoms, and immunosuppression with HIV, which is related to a higher risk of HPV infection.
It is estimated that 10-15% of women have oncogenic HPV types (HPV high risk: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 69, 82 and HPV low risk: 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 72, 81). In the USA, 16 and 18 types are detected in 70% of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) as well as in invasive cervical cancer cases.
Cervical cancer starts in the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus. The uterus holds the growing fetus during pregnancy. The cervix connects the lower part of the uterus to the vagina and, with the vagina, forms the birth canal.